Document Type

Paper Series

Publication Date





This study examines the employment status of women employees working for two Japanese department stores in Hong Kong. Empirical evidence reveals that Japanese expatriate managers brings sexist cultural values which discriminate against women in the host-country environment because a majority of local female employees are employed in lower hierarchical positions at the bottom of the organisational and managerial pyramid, whilst male employees occupied most of the professional and managerial positions at the top . This paper discusses the situation in which female employees are likely to be discriminated against for senior management from the perspectives of horizontal and vertical job segregation. Four major categories of constraints arising from the company’s human resource management (HRM) policies and practices leading to the subordinated employment position of women are identified – recruitment and selection, job assignment and promotion, training and development and remuneration. These HRM policies and practices are influenced by the Japanese preconception of women and the characteristics of the retail industry


HKIBS Working Paper Series 007-967

(The paper is later published in Women in Management Review, Vol.12 Issue 4, 1997)

Recommended Citation

Wong, M. M. L. (1997). Women's employment status in two Japanese retail stores in Hong Kong (HKIBS Working Paper Series 007-967). Retrieved from Lingnan University website:

Included in

Business Commons