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This paper studies the job turnover among manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai during the period from 1989 to 1992. Various indicators of job turnover, including job expansion rate, job contraction rate, net job growth rate, gross job reallocation rate, and excess job reallocation rate are calculated. The empirical results demonstrate that types of ownership and firm size are significant factors in accounting for the changes in job generation and job reallocation. Among various types of enterprise, international joint ventures and small firms (i.e., those that employ less than 100 workers) are more able to create jobs and to generate job reallocation.


HKIBS Working Paper Series 022-978

Recommended Citation

Chow, K. W. C., Fung, K. Y. M., & Ngo, H. Y. (1998). Job turnover in China: A case study of Shanghai's manufacturing enterprises (HKIBS Working Paper Series 022-978). Retrieved from Lingnan University website:

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