Being an employee and an entrepreneur simultaneously : two essays on hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work and entrepreneurial work outcomes
Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Prof. CHEN Tingting
Prof. WONG Shiu Ho Alfred
In this dissertation, I examine the effects of venturing activities on hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work and venture work outcomes through the development of two inter-related empirical essays. In Essay 1, I examine how different levels and congruence of hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work and entrepreneurial identities influence their effort and subsequent performance in both wage work and entrepreneurial work roles. Specifically, I examine how wage work and entrepreneurial work effort are affected when one identity is higher than the other as well as how they are affected when both wage work and entrepreneurial identities are high versus when they are low. How these congruence and incongruence are conveyed to wage work and entrepreneurial performance through work effort were also investigated. To do this, I draw on the role identity theory and utilized polynomial regression and response surface methodology. Using a multi-wave and multi-source data, I found that when wage work identity is higher than entrepreneurial identity, wage work effort is high and when entrepreneurial identity is higher than wage work identity, entrepreneurial effort is high. Moreover, the results also show that effort in both roles is better when both identities are low than when they are high. Further, wage work and entrepreneurial work effort served as explanatory mechanisms and carried the (in)congruence effects to wage work and entrepreneurial performance. In Essay 2, I shift my attention to how hybrid entrepreneurs’ involvement in venture activities facilitates or harms team members’ social exchange behaviors with them at wage work and how such exchanges affect their venture and wage work outcomes. I take a crossover perspective and distinguish between two experiences that hybrid entrepreneurs can transfer from their venture to their wage work team members. Specifically, I differentiate between when hybrid entrepreneurs’ involvement in venture activities enriches versus when it conflicts with teamwork. I draw on relational identity theory and examine how such enrichment or conflict affects the quality of exchange relations between the team members and the focal hybrid entrepreneurs. I further examine how these exchange relations affect hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work, entrepreneurial work, and identity outcomes. Using data collected from four sources over five waves, I found that team members’ relational identification with hybrid entrepreneurs is stronger when they receive enriching venturing experiences. This leads team members to exhibit more psychosocial support and less social undermining toward their hybrid entrepreneurial coworkers. However, receiving conflicting venturing experiences harms team members’ relational identification with hybrid entrepreneurs. This leads team members to exhibit more social undermining and less psychosocial support toward their hybrid entrepreneurial coworkers. I also found that receiving psychosocial support positively impacted hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work, entrepreneurial work, and identity outcomes. In contrast, being socially undermined had negative consequences on their wage work, entrepreneurial work, and identity outcomes. Together, these two essays shed light on the double-edged effect of the dual-work context of hybrid entrepreneurs on venturing and wage work roles. By highlighting the pivotal roles played by role identity and resource transfers, the results provide evidence that although being a hybrid entrepreneur has its merits, there are also some associated demerits that must be noted.
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Asante, E. A. (2021). Being an employee and an entrepreneur simultaneously: Two essays on hybrid entrepreneurs’ wage work and entrepreneurial work outcomes (Doctor's thesis, Lingnan University, Hong Kong). Retrieved from https://commons.ln.edu.hk/otd/119/
Available for download on Tuesday, August 01, 2023