Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy (MPHIL)



First Advisor

Dr. May M. L. WONG

Second Advisor

Prof. Dean W. TJOSVOLD


This research examined the influence of work status on attitudes and work outcomes. The two attitudes of perception of psychological contract violations, (violation of employment promise by employers) and fairness perception (fair treatment at work) were studied. This research examined the relationship between attitudes and work outcomes (organizational commitment, e.g. loyalty; organizational citizenship behavior, voluntary action done by employees for the sake of organizations and turnover intention). Individuals with family responsibility are attracted to work part-time voluntarily. Corporate downsizing has often forced individuals to go into part-time work involuntarily. Voluntary and involuntary work status had moderating effects on attitudes and work outcomes. The people that part-time workers chose to be compared with when they evaluate their fairness situation were also examined.

Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Respondents were asked about their perceptions towards their employment relationship with employers in the questionnaires. Part-time workers focus groups and supervisors interviews were used to supplement the quantitative methods by suggesting reasons to explain the part-time work issues, for example, on the compared referent selections.

The findings showed that work status had a high moderating effect on the relationship between perceptions of psychological contract violations and voluntary actions and such interactions were much stronger on voluntary than on involuntary part-time workers. Work status also showed a high moderating effect on the relationship between fairness perception, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior, and such interactions were much stronger in involuntary than voluntary workers. Unexpectedly, work status did not have a moderating influence on the relationship between perception of psychological contract violations, organizational commitment, and turnover intention of involuntary part-time workers. Furthermore, work status showed a moderating influence on fairness perception, and turnover intention, and such a negative relationship was much stronger in voluntary than involuntary workers.

It was also found that the compared referents of voluntary part-time workers were part-time workers working inside and outside organizations. The compared referents of involuntary part-time workers were full-time workers working outside the organizations and their past work experiences.


Temporary employment, part-time employment, service industries

Recommended Citation

Cheung, F. Y. M. (2001). The influence of work status on the work outcomes among part-time workers in the service industries of Hong Kong (Master's thesis, Lingnan University, Hong Kong). Retrieved from