其他篇名 Alternative Title
The study of sacrificial ritual of the Eight Deities : an example of the study by comparing the historical texts with the archaeological materials
The Eight Deities were the spirits of Heaven, the Land, Arms, the Sun, the Moon, the Yin, the Yang, and the Four Seasons, to whom sacrificial were presented. The sacrificial spots are located scatteredly in the State of Qi on the map of Han Star-field system, three of whom in the heart land of the Shandong Peninsula, and the others in the east-coastal areas.
The historical texts on the Eight Deities only appear in the Shiji and the Hanshu. It is recorded that the sacrifices were presented to the Eight Deities only when the emperors of Qin and Han dynasties visited those places, who were the First Emperor and Second Emperor of Qin, Wu Emperor and Xuan Emperor of Han. Such practice was abolished from 31BCE, following the establishment of a new sacrificial practices presenting sacrifices to the Heaven and the Earth in the suburban areas of the capital city.
The results of comparing the archaeological work with the historical text show that those late Warring States thinkers promoted and divined such a sacrificial system based on their contemporary cosmology, in the meantime emphasizing the status of human being represented by the Deity of Arms. When choosing sites for the eight spirits, the thinkers made tactical use of the previously existed religious practice to facilitate the worship of the Eight Deities. The success of the thinkers in selling their ideas to the rulers followed the decline of the Zhou enfeoffment system and the establishment of the jun-xian administrative system supporting centralized rule in Qin and Han periods.
The thoughts reflected in the Eight Deities that the Heavenly Way is spontaneity, that the Human Way follows spontaneity, and that emphasizes both the Yin and the Yang as an inseparable pair of cosmological forces, constitute an important historical, religious heritage to the traditional Chinese state religion.
八主, 祭祀, 宇宙觀, 戰國晚期, 思想家, Eight Deities, Sacrificial Ritual, Cosmology, Late Warring States, Thinker
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參考書目格式 Recommended Citation
王睿 (2021)。《史記》八主祭祀的鉤沉與推演 : 傳世文獻與考古材料的對勘研究舉例。《嶺南學報》，復刊 第十五輯，頁51-75。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol15/iss1/4