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其他篇名 Alternative Title

A historical research from the standard pronunciation in the Middle Ages to Ya Yan in the Shang-Zhou Dynasty

摘要 Abstract

六朝學者的標準音觀念,本質上是以當時的權威方言音系,來規範讀書音。顔之推之所以將標準音定爲金陵音與洛下音兩個,是因爲這兩個權威方言的差别本來就不大,可以認爲是同一個音系。雖然有權威方言存在,但是現實生活中實際的“通語”,是參雜各種方音成分的漢語變體。“洛生詠”也并非標準的洛陽讀書音,而是吟誦的音調。商周時期的雅言的狀況與此相似。周人克商,有意識地進行了政治、宗教等意識形態領域的變革。《詩經》的雅是西周朝廷的雅樂,二南是各國諸侯的雅樂。從雅樂與政治意識形態的變革,語音與樂律水土的關係的角度,可以推斷西周初年雅言的標準音經歷了從殷商的政治中心安陽淇縣一帶向洛陽地區過渡的過程,從此奠定了洛陽方言長期作爲漢語權威方言的格局。

The real meaning of “standard pronunciation” appeared in the middle ages is to standardize the pronunciation of the literacy language by choosing out an authority dialect. The reason that YAN Zhitui choose two dialects, the Jin Ling dialect and the Luo Yang dialect, as the standard phonologies, is that the two phonologies are almost the same, so that they can be deemed as one phonology. Although there exists the received authority dialect, the real “standard pronunciation” at that time is a kind of “complex pronunciation” mixed with the speakers’ native dialects. The famous word “Luo Sheng Yong” does not mean any standard pronunciation of the literacy language in fact, but a special reciting note. Ya Yan, the common literacy language during the Shang and Zhou dynasty was very similar with the authority dialect in the middle ages. The leaders of the Zhou people made a serious of revolution in the fields of politics and religion after they overthrew the rule of the Shang people. One of those revolutions was the standard of Ya Yue, the classical music, which was also one of the most important means of governance then. The idea of the standard language pronunciation was a part of the theory of music, so that the change of the standard of classical music means the change of the authority dialect correspondingly. Based on the close relationship between them, we can infer the authority dialect during the beginning of the West Zhou dynasty had been changed from the An Yang or Qi dialect to the Luo Yang dialect.

關鍵詞 Keywords

雅言, 標準音, 顔之推, 洛生詠, 樂律, 土中, Ya Yan, standard pronunciation, Yan Zhitui, Luo Sheng Yong, rule of music, the central of the earth

語言 Language

Chinese (Traditional)

備註 Additional Information

本文寫成後,先後得到馬毛朋、趙彤、杜清雨、陳侃理、田天等諸位師友的指正與建議,令我受益良多,謹致謝忱!當然,若有任何錯誤,概由筆者負責。

版權聲明 Copyright Statement

香港嶺南大學中文系(編),上海古籍出版社(出版)

參考書目格式 Recommended Citation

徐剛 (2021)。從史實論六朝標準音與商周雅言。《嶺南學報》,第十五輯,頁293-325。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol15/iss1/13

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