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其他篇名 Alternative Title

Recluses and considerations of involvement and withdrawal : some Qing literati’s disquisitions on Yin (Withdrawal)

摘要 Abstract

本文試論中國傳統隱士逸民,動機並非純粹的出世,而多牽纏於功名節操等世俗價值的考慮,終而産生矛盾掙扎的心情。隱逸始終擺脱不了士大夫靈魂中經世致用的宿命,故未出仕時因盼望帝王賞識而患得患失,改朝换代時則身不由己,藉隱退以保存名節。出處進退,多糾纏於世俗的政治取態與表態,造成了避世的不徹底、不純粹。他們退隱心情的主旋律,既非對山林自然的嚮往,亦非對生命價值的解放,而是出於世俗牽絆,帶有政治理想、動機、價值的曲折投射。有清一代儒者面對滿洲部族政治壓抑,提出貞隱、學隱、尊隱三種觀念,從不同角度作新詮解,部分印證了隱逸的世俗羈絆,同時亦有發前人所未發的意義新境。

This paper reexamines the rationale of eremitism in the Chinese political tradition and argues that the recluses’ considerations were highly pragmatic rather than idealistic. Ever since ancient times, jingshi (ordering the world), the pursuit of a career in the officialdom so as to ameliorate the state and society, had been the ultimate goal of the literati. Before they entered government service, their speculations and thoughts on yin (withdrawal) were often the results of their anxieties over the emperors’ potential actions concerning official selections and appointments. When facing a new regime, the literati’s original identity with the fallen dynasty motivated them to stay away from the new political order’s recruitments. Therefore, for most Chinese literati, yin was not merely a philosophical and existential quest for freedom from mundane everyday life. In fact, more often than not, it represented a political declaration or ethical manifesto. After offering some historical contexts and backgrounds of the phenomenon of eremitism, the paper examines three Qing scholars’ views of yin: Tang Zhen’s idea of zhenyin (eremitism of faith), Zhang Taiyan’s notion of xueyin (eremitism of scholarship), and Gong Zizhen’s zunyin (eremitism of honor). These three archetypal arguments and conceptions not only revealed their inspirations by earlier examples of thoughts on reclusion but also expressed new formulations of the justifications and patterns of yin.

關鍵詞 Keywords

隱士, 逸民, 出處進退, 遺民, 經世, recluse, withdrawal, Chinese literati, political identity, ordering the world

版權聲明 Copyright Statement

香港嶺南大學中文系(編),上海古籍出版社(出版)

語言 Language

Chinese (Traditional)

參考書目格式 Recommended Citation

鄭吉雄 (2021)。隱士逸民與出處進退 : 清儒論“隱”。《嶺南學報》,第十四輯,頁239-278。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol14/iss1/10

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