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其他篇名 Alternative Title

The Xing Ji tradition in Chinese literature

摘要 Abstract

“興寄”作爲中國古典詩學重要理論概念廣爲接受,但勘察中國文學的“實際”,它本是以比類與托喻爲表徵的自由疏放的抒情方式。伴隨“楚騷”躋身“詩三百篇”同等的地位,“興寄”被吸納入“詩教比興”的系統而呈現出“隱曲”的特徵。宋代以來對“直筆”式“詩史”之批評更爲强調褒貶的寄寓,又推助“興寄”走向詩歌意義層面的“深微”。“深婉隱曲”的“興寄”衍生出兩種批評方案:“知人論世—詩史互證”與“微言大義—興感超越”。前者取決於文本内在結構的細微把握,如陸注蘇詩、錢注杜詩等;後者更加凸顯文本自身的獨立意義,如常州派的“詞史”批評等。儘管“興寄”走到過字義比附帶來的“僵化”、歷史闡釋的强勢介入所出現的“羈絆”以及由“興感”的“氾濫”導致的喧賓奪主,但在中國文學長河中始終具備有變動不居、生氣淋漓的“文學傳統”之表徵,實際成爲中國文學本體的核心“存在”

Xing ji (inspirational irony and images of substitution) is an important and widely accepted theoretical concept of Chinese classical poetics. Previous research on classical Chinese writings shows that xing ji had been a free and unrestrained lyricism characterized by analogy and metaphor. As Chuci (Songs of Chu) achieved the same status as Shijing (Classics of Poetry), xing ji was absorbed into the system of shi jiao (instruction through poetry) and bi xing (analogical and affective image), and it consequently adopted the feature of obscurity. Xing ji was further driven toward profundity and subtlety at the semantic level by the straightforward evaluative criticism of the history of poetry since the Song dynasty. The profound, subtle, and obscure xing ji induced two patterns of criticism: (1) “biographical studies and historical criticism of poetry” which depends on the meticulous apprehension of the inner structure of the text, such as Lu You’s annotations of Su Shi’s poetry and Qian Jianyi’s of Du Fu’s; (2) “subtle words that inspire profundity and affective images that inspire transcendence” which emphasizes the meaning of the text itself, such as the Changzhou school’s criticism of the history of ci-poetry. Having overcome the rigidity attached to the word meaning, the fetter from the forceful intervention of historical interpretation, and the overwhelming flow of xing gan (affective feelings), xing ji remains a vigorous literary tradition and has become a core existence in the ever-changing history of Chinese literature.

關鍵詞 Keywords

興寄, 抒情方式, 比類, 托喻, 詩教, 詩史, xing ji, lyricism, analogy, metaphor, instruction through poetry, history of poetry

版權聲明 Copyright Statement

香港嶺南大學中文系(編),上海古籍出版社(出版)

語言 Language

Chinese (Traditional)

參考書目格式 Recommended Citation

馬里揚 (2021)。中國文學的“興寄”傳統。《嶺南學報》,第十四輯,頁1-32。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol14/iss1/1

Available for download on Wednesday, June 01, 2022

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