其他篇名 Alternative Title
Taboo narrative in Shi Ji and the writing method of Chun Qiu : with examples from the wars with Xiongnu
Why is there such a thing as taboo narrative? Because according to The Analects, Confucius wrote Chun Qiu in accordance with the incidents of the time when sarcasm, praises, and criticism were taboos and cannot be written, therefore authors appropriated writing skills and hidden words to satirize. The main point of taboo narrative is to show how the authority taboos shame or mistakes of the elders. Sima Qian wrote four essays on the war between Emperor Wu of Han and Xiongnu in Shi Ji, which I will discuss in this paper. Among these four, Biography of General Lee describes the contribution and mistakes of this war. Sima Qian satirized the ways in which people’s contribution was omitted. Biography of General Wei discusses why the reward of the war with Xiongnu, led by Wei Qing and Huo Qu Bing, did not make up for the loss it cost. Because of this, Sima Qian did not identify Wei and Huo with their ability of leading troops. Sima Qian used taboo narrative to imply something beyond what was written. Biography of Xiongnu describes how he did not dare to criticize Emperor Wu of Han’s war attempts, and instead said that problems occurred because the right person was not assigned the right job. The Treatise of the Balanced Standard directly describes how the emperor evened the price increase because of the war, and how this led to the increase of unsuitable government officials. Accumulating wealth by unfair means and robbery were things that could not be written, thus they were hidden but could be discovered by analyzing the writing method. Sima Qian was good at such method known as commenting within descriptions. The paper is divided into three parts. First of all, the description regarding the war as recorded in Shi Ji and the writing method of Chun Qiu, including the writing method of Chun Qiu and revealing the meaning of Shi Ji through its writing method. Second, the war with Xiongnu and the writing method of Chun Qiu in Shi Ji and taboo description, including The Treatise of the Balanced Standard, Biography of General Lee, and Biography of Xiongnu.
《史記》, 征伐匈奴, 《春秋》書法, 忌諱叙事, 筆削昭義, Shi Ji, war with Xiongnu, writing method of Chun Qiu, taboo narrative, realizing Meaning through Writing Skills
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參考書目格式 Recommended Citation
張高評 (2019)。《史記》忌諱叙事與《春秋》書法 : 以征伐匈奴之相關人事為例。《嶺南學報》，第十二輯，頁19-59。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol12/iss1/2