•  
  •  
 

其他篇名 Alternative Title

Taboo narrative in Shi Ji and the writing method of Chun Qiu : with examples from the wars with Xiongnu

摘要 Abstract

忌諱叙事,緣於“切當世之文而罔褒”,有所刺譏褒諱挹損之文辭,不可以書見”,故推見至隱,筆削見義,寓微辭以譏諷之。忌諱叙事之焦點,在關注如何為尊者諱恥、為長者諱過。司馬遷《史記》叙武帝征討匈奴事,本文選取相關史傳四篇:《李將軍列傳》,叙討伐匈奴之功過,太史公詭辭謬稱,刺譏褒諱有功不賞。《衛將軍驃騎列傳》,叙衛青、霍去病征討匈奴,所獲不如所亡;衛、霍將略,太史公所不取。言外褒贬,實與而文不與。《匈奴列傳》,不敢斥言武帝窮兵黷武,乃托辭擇任將相。《平準書》,直書為邊費耗財而興利平準,因平準而滋長鬻爵酷吏。聚斂攘奪不可以書見,故或筆或削以見義。司馬遷擅長“於叙事中寓論斷”,以屬辭比事為脈絡,體現或書或不書之筆削去取。主體論文分為三部分:一,《史記》叙征伐興利與《春秋》筆削:(一)《春秋》書法與《史記》之筆削見義。(二)征戰興利,或書或不書,筆削以見義。二,征戰匈奴與《史記》之《春秋》書法、忌諱叙事:(一)《平準書》據事直書,寓論斷於叙事之中。(二)《李將軍列傳》於叙事中即見其指。(三)比事屬辭與《匈奴列傳》之忌諱叙事。三,征伐匈奴與《史記》之曲筆諱書、詭辭謬稱:(一)曲筆諱書,微婉顯晦,推見以至隱。(二)詭辭謬稱,實與而文不與。

Why is there such a thing as taboo narrative? Because according to The Analects, Confucius wrote Chun Qiu in accordance with the incidents of the time when sarcasm, praises, and criticism were taboos and cannot be written, therefore authors appropriated writing skills and hidden words to satirize. The main point of taboo narrative is to show how the authority taboos shame or mistakes of the elders. Sima Qian wrote four essays on the war between Emperor Wu of Han and Xiongnu in Shi Ji, which I will discuss in this paper. Among these four, Biography of General Lee describes the contribution and mistakes of this war. Sima Qian satirized the ways in which people’s contribution was omitted. Biography of General Wei discusses why the reward of the war with Xiongnu, led by Wei Qing and Huo Qu Bing, did not make up for the loss it cost. Because of this, Sima Qian did not identify Wei and Huo with their ability of leading troops. Sima Qian used taboo narrative to imply something beyond what was written. Biography of Xiongnu describes how he did not dare to criticize Emperor Wu of Han’s war attempts, and instead said that problems occurred because the right person was not assigned the right job. The Treatise of the Balanced Standard directly describes how the emperor evened the price increase because of the war, and how this led to the increase of unsuitable government officials. Accumulating wealth by unfair means and robbery were things that could not be written, thus they were hidden but could be discovered by analyzing the writing method. Sima Qian was good at such method known as commenting within descriptions. The paper is divided into three parts. First of all, the description regarding the war as recorded in Shi Ji and the writing method of Chun Qiu, including the writing method of Chun Qiu and revealing the meaning of Shi Ji through its writing method. Second, the war with Xiongnu and the writing method of Chun Qiu in Shi Ji and taboo description, including The Treatise of the Balanced Standard, Biography of General Lee, and Biography of Xiongnu.

關鍵詞 Keywords

《史記》, 征伐匈奴, 《春秋》書法, 忌諱叙事, 筆削昭義, Shi Ji, war with Xiongnu, writing method of Chun Qiu, taboo narrative, realizing Meaning through Writing Skills

版權聲明 Copyright Statement

香港嶺南大學中文系(編),上海古籍出版社(出版)

語言 Language

Chinese (Traditional)

備註 Additional Information

《嶺南學報》名家講座系列專稿。
Special Column: LJCS Lecture Series.

參考書目格式 Recommended Citation

張高評 (2019)。《史記》忌諱叙事與《春秋》書法 : 以征伐匈奴之相關人事為例。《嶺南學報》,第十二輯,頁19-59。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol12/iss1/2

Available for download on Wednesday, July 01, 2020

Share

COinS