Document Type

Paper Series

Publication Date



8 (2000)


The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of family support (affective and instrumental) and friendship (affective and instrumental) on the psychological well-being of older women in one district in Hong Kong. The study sample consisted of 60 older women aged 60 to 85. The results show that family support (affective and instrumental) and friendship (affective and instrumental) are all related positively significantly to psychological well-being (measures of positive affect include happiness, life satisfaction, and competency; and negative affect include stress, anxiety, and depression). A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that affective support for family and perceived importance of friendship were strong predictors of psychological well-being. Some recommendations with regard to informal support provision for older persons are discussed in the paper.

Paper Series No.

APIAS Working Paper Series No.8 (2000)

Recommended Citation

Siu, O. L., & Phillips, D. R. (2000). Quality improvement through customer satisfaction benchmarking: Manual for customer satisfaction surveys (APIAS Working Paper Series No.8). Retrieved from Lingnan University website:

Included in

Gerontology Commons