東方文化 = Journal of Oriental Studies
University of Hong Kong
“待放”禮說，最早見於逸禮《王度記》及《公羊傳》，其後《孝經援神契》詳細地解釋了“待放”及賜予環玦的意義，及至《白虎通》，“待放”之說得到更大的推衍。此說對漢（前206-220）儒產生了極為深遠的影響。漢儒注書，往往以“待放”解釋古人的行為。鄭玄（127-200）箋《詩》、注《禮》，即常以此為據。王逸（約89-158）注屈（原，約前343-前277）賦也將“待放”與屈子行誼牽合起來。趙岐（108?-201）注《孟子》同樣引用過這條禮說。綜合文獻所載及漢人之說，“待放”大要是說：人臣三諫，不從，待放於郊三年，與環即還，與玦即去。其中環表請還、玦表訣絕，很可能是古體，至春秋（前770-前476）之時還保留這種禮儀，我們可以分別從《左傳》與《國語》裏找到“絕人以玦”與“反絕以環”的實際事例。但通覽先秦文獻，待放之事，卻未見一例。也許所謂待放之說，不過是後儒附會賜予環玦之禮而創造出來的一種制度，又或是周（前1046-前256）禮有此規定而未能實行。無論如何，王逸以至當代《楚辭》學者言之鑿鑿的屈原待放於郊之說，顯然是站不住腳的。 The etiquette of daifang待放 was first mentioned in the Wangduji王度記 and Gongyangzhuan公羊傳, and thereafter the Xiaojing yuanshenqi 孝經援伸契 explained in detail the etiquette and the significance of the jade rings huan 環 and jue 玦. By the time of the Baihutiong白虎通, the practice of falling back on the etiquette to explain pre-Qin events had greatly influenced Han dynasty (206 BC-AD220) scholars in their annotations of Confucian classics. Daifang was often quoted in Zheng Xuan’s鄭玄 (127-200) exegeses for the Shijing詩經, Zhouli 周禮, Yili 儀禮 and Liji 禮記; it was coupled with the deeds of Qu Yuan 屈原 in Wang Yi’s 王逸 (ca. 89-158) Chuci楚辭 glosses; and Zhao Qi趙岐 (108?-201) similarly made use of the same etiquette in his study of Mencius. Based on these accounts, daifang refers to the custom of banishing a court official for three years after three unsuccessful attempts to persuade his master. He may return to the court if he receives a huan from his master after the exile period, or leave for good if it turns out to be a jue (a jade ring with an opening). Symbolizing the homonyms huan 還 (“to return”) and jue 訣 (“to depart”), the delivery of the jade rings could have been an ancient custom that persisted up to the Spring and Autumn period (770-453BC), from when stories of“breaking up with a jue” and“getting back together with a huan” can still be spotted in the Zuozhuan左傳 and Guoyu國語. On the other hand, instances of daifang have never been recorded on Pre-Qin sources. It thus appears that daifang was a fantasized practice built on top of the huanjue custom, or that it was a Zhou 周 dynasty (1046-256 BC) ritual that was never carried through. In any case, the story of Qu Yuan being exiled, a theory popularized by Wang Yi and other Chuci experts, does not pass the test of evidence.
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