Democracy revisited and its implications to Hong Kong
形式民主, 实质民主, 公众利益, 选举, 法治, formal democracy, substantive democracy, public interest, election, rule of law
民主可分形式民主和实质民主。 前者重点在选举, 后者重点在惠民。 民选的政府不一定就能有效回应市民的要求； 惠民的政府有效回应市民的要求， 但不一定是民选。 香港的泛民放眼在所谓 “真普选”， 但其实应着眼于追求真民主。 能积极并有效回应市民要求的政府即是以民为主。虚有民选之名的政府， 若推动不了人民的福祉， 不能算是真民主。 推动真民主要倚靠公平的法律和法治， 辅以有效的民间监察以防滥权； 同时也要坚实的政策分析能力， 以便判断政策的优劣。 形式民主和实质民主并非互相排斥， 两者并存是锦上添花； 但两取其一， 则以实质民主更为重要。
Democracy conceptually can fall into two categories: formal democracy and substantive democracy. The former refers to government formed by elections; the latter refers to government formed to deliver. An elected government needs not to deliver; a government that delivers serves the people, yet it needs not to be elected. The current democratic movement in Hong Kong puts its focus on "genuine universal suffrage", but the focus should be on “genuine democracy”. A government that actively and effectively responds to people's needs and wants is a government that truly serves the people. It can be called substantive democracy or genuine democracy. To achieve genuine democracy, fair laws, the rule of law, as well as effective monitoring of government by the people through freedom of the press and freedom of speech are needed. In this way, abuse of power can be prevented. To deliver, such a government also needs strength in policy analysis. Formal democracy and substantive democracy are not mutually exclusive, and Hong Kong would be double-blessed if it has both. But between formal democracy and substantive democracy, the latter is more important.
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何泺生 (2014)。民主的再思考及对香港的启示 = Democracy revisited and its implications to Hong Kong。《港澳研究 = Hong Kong and Macao studies》，(3)，9-16, 93。