Document Type

Paper Series

Publication Date



3 (3/98)


The present study is a 15-month project which collected data from Hong Kong mangers at three points to examine the role of age, coping strategies, and locus of control in managerial stress in Hong Kong. A total of 634 managers was drawn by random sampling and purposive sampling method. The Occupational Stress Indicator-version 2 (OSI-2) was used as the instrument to collect data by self-administered survey method. The result showed that age was negatively related to job satisfaction, mental well-being, and physical well-being. The result also showed that older managers tended to employ more control coping, and older managers had greater job satisfaction and better well-being. In locus of control, age was found to be negatively related to work locus of control (external). It has been demonstrated that managers who were externals (people who hold expectancies that outside forces or luck controls reinforcements) were those who had lower job satisfaction, worse mental or physical well-bring, and higher quitting intention. Further, managers who were externals employed fewer control coping strategies. These results suggest that age differences in job satisfaction and well-being can possible in controllability.

Paper Series No.

APIAS Working Paper Series No.3 (3/98)

Recommended Citation

Siu, O. L. (1998). A longitudinal study on managerial stress in Hong Kong: Age differences in coping strategies and locus of control (APIAS Working Paper Series No.3). Retrieved from Lingnan University website:

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Gerontology Commons