Title

The lack of pollinator specificity in a dioecious fig tree : sympatric fig-pollinating wasps of Ficus septica in southern Taiwan

Document Type

Journal article

Source Publication

Biotropica

Publication Date

3-2011

Volume

43

Issue

2

First Page

200

Last Page

207

Publisher

Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

Keywords

Ceratosolen, coexistence, fig wasp, pollination

Abstract

Although species specificity between fig trees and their pollinators has been considered a classic example of obligate mutualism, increasing exceptions to the one-to-one relationship suggest that multiple pollinator species per fig host species may be a pervasive phenomenon. Based on both mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses, we found three putative pollinator species (Ceratosolen spp.) associated with Ficus spetica in southern Taiwan, two of which, that differ in color, routinely coexist within single figs. These three pollinators are substantially divergent from the pollinator of F. spetica in New Guinea, implying that wasp diversity may be highly underestimated when the one-to-one rule is assumed. Our findings not only provide the first case of coexistence of pollinators within single figs on a shared dioecious Ficus host, but also an ideal system to investigate interspecific competition and sex allocation, especially when coexisting pollinators are visually distinguishable by their colors.

DOI

10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00686.x

Print ISSN

00063606

E-ISSN

17447429

Publisher Statement

Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation. Access to external full text or publisher's version may require subscription.

Full-text Version

Publisher’s Version

Recommended Citation

Lin, R.-C., Yeung, C. K.-L., Fong, J. J., Tzeng, H.-Y. & Li, S.-H. (2011), The lack of pollinator specificity in a dioecious fig tree: Sympatric fig-pollinating wasps of ficus septica in southern Taiwan. Biotropica, 43(2), 200–207. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2010.00686.x