Although the Chinese manufacturing industry has attracted a vast amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) and has made rapid development, the Chinese service sector is still heftily-protected and has absorbed little FDI since the open door policy adopted in 1978. As a result, the share of the service output is just around 41% of China’s GDP. This is clearly unsatisfactory as the service sector has been able to create more jobs proportionally in many other developed and less developed countries than that in China. This paper is the first attempt in the literature to conduct an empirical comparative study of the competitiveness and technical efficiency of the domestic and foreign-invested service industries in China in 2004. It provides some policy implications such as whether China should continue to open her service market and what would be the likely consequences if this is indeed the case.
中國從單一的計劃經濟體制轉向市場經濟後，工業發展速度迅猛， 但服務業發展一直處於相對緩慢狀態。服務業佔GDP的比重只有 40%，低於發達國家和其他發展中國家的比重。這與過去國營服務業 一直在國內佔壟斷地位，以及政府對外資企業的限制有一定的關係。但自從中國加入WTO後，服務業逐年開放，外資和民營企業的參與逐年上升。這對提高服務業的效率，增加就業機會，無疑起到了很大的積極作用。本文主要比較中外資服務業的狀況，譬如僱員勞動生產率、市場銷售份額、增加值市場份額、利潤份額、利潤率、 資本生產率、資本投入份額，從而分析外資服務業在全國市場滲透程度和競爭力。本文進一步依據現代前沿生產隨機模型，系統比較中外資服務業運作技術效率 (technical efficiency, TE)。主要發現是， 雖然中資服務業在政府保護下佔有90%的市場份額，但相對於外資 服務業，無論在競爭力和效率方面，都有相當大的差距，極待改進。
Ma, Y. (2006). Market performance and technical efficiency of domestic and foreign-invested service industries in China (CPPS Working Paper Series No.176). Retrieved from Lingnan University website: http://commons.ln.edu.hk/cppswp/81/