Adaptation and validation of Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale in Chinese population

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Journal article

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions

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Akademiai Kiado Rt.


Adaptation, Translation, Compulsive Buying, Behavioral Addiction, Psychometric Testing, Chinese


Background and aims: Compulsive buying (CB) is a behavioral addiction that is conceptualized as an obsessive–compulsive and impulsive–control disorder. The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), a six-item self-reporting instrument that has been validated worldwide, was developed based on this theoretical background. This study aimed to adapt RCBS to the Chinese population (RCBS-TC) to guide future national and international prevalence studies.

Methods: This methodological study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved the forward and backward translation of RCBS, the content and face validation of the RCBS, and the evaluation of its translation adequacy. Phase 2 involved the psychometric testing of RCBS-TC for its internal consistency, stability, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Results: In Phase 1, RCBS-TC obtained satisfactory item-level (I-CVI = 83.3%–100%) and scale-level content validity index (CVI/AVE = 97.2%), comprehensibility (100%), and translation adequacy [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.858]. In Phase 2, based on data collected from 821 adults, RCBS-TC demonstrated a satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .88; corrected item-total correlation coefficients = 0.61–0.78) 2-week test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.82 based on 61 university students). For construct validation, the CFA results indicated that the corrected first-order two-factor models were acceptable with the same goodness-of-fit indices (χ2/df = 8.56, CFI = 0.99, NFI = 0.98, IFI = 0.99, and RMSEA = 0.09). The 2-week test–retest reliability of RCBS-TC (n = 61) was also satisfactory (ICC = 0.82).

Discussion and conclusions: This methodological study adopted appropriate and stringent procedures to ensure that the translation and validation of RCBS-TC was of quality. The results indicate that this scale has a satisfactory reliability and validity for the Chinese population.



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Funding Information

This work was partially supported by the School of Science and Technology Unit Fund, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (grant number: ST-17/18-1), and S. Living Campaign 2017, Wofoo Community Service Network, Wofoo Social Enterprises, Hong Kong.{ST-17/18-1}

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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

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Recommended Citation

Lam, S. C., Chan, Z. S.-L., Chong, A. C.-Y., Wong, W. W.-C., & Ye, J. (2018). Adaptation and validation of Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale in Chinese population. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 760-769. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.94