Catching up with wonderful women : the women-are-wonderful effect is smaller in more gender egalitarian societies


Kuba KRYS, Institute of Psychology of Polish Academy of Sciences
Colin A. CAPALDI, Carleton University
Wijnand VAN TILBURG, King's College London
Ottmar V. LIPP, Curtin University
Michael Harris BOND, Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityFollow
C.-Melanie VAUCLAIR, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
L. Sam S. MANICKAM, JSS University
Alejandra DOMÍNGUEZ-ESPINOSA, Iberoamerican University
Claudio TORRES, University of Brasilia
Miu Chi, Vivian LUN, Lingnan University
Julien TEYSSIER, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès
Lynden K. MILES, University of Aberdeen
Karolina HANSEN, University of Warsaw
Joonha PARK, Nagoya University of Commerce and Business
Wolfgang WAGNER, Johannes Kepler University
Angela Arriola YU, University of the Philippines-Diliman
Cai XING, Renmin University of China
Ryan WISE, Istanbul Bilgi University
Chien-Ru SUN, National Chengchi University
Razi Sultan SIDDIQUI, DHA SUFFA University
Radwa SALEM, New York University
Muhammad RIZWAN, University of Karachi
Vassilis PAVLOPOULOS, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Martin NADER, Universidad ICESI
Fridanna MARICCHIOLO, University of Roma Tre
María MALBRAN, Universidad Nacional de La Plata
Gwatirera JAVANGWE, University of Zimbabwe
İdil IŞIK, Istanbul Bilgi University
David O. IGBOKWE, Covenant University
Taekyun HUR, Korea University - Korea
Arif HASSAN, International Islamic University Malaysia
Ana GONZALEZ, Carleton University
Márta FÜLÖP, Eötvös Loránd University
Patrick DENOUX, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès
Enila CENKO, University of New York TiranaFollow
Ana CHKHAIDZE, Agricultural University of Georgia
Eleonora SHMELEVA, St. Petersburg State University
Radka ANTALÍKOVÁ, Aalborg UniversityFollow
Ramadan A. AHMED, Menoufia UniversityFollow

Document Type

Journal article

Source Publication

International Journal of Psychology

Publication Date



Advance online publication


Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Culture, Social cognition, Gender egalitarianism, Gender stereotypes, Implicit attitudes


Inequalities between men and women are common and well-documented. Objective indexes show that men are better positioned than women in societal hierarchies—there is no single country in the world without a gender gap. In contrast, researchers have found that the women-are-wonderful effect—that women are evaluated more positively than men overall—is also common. Cross-cultural studies on gender equality reveal that the more gender egalitarian the society is, the less prevalent explicit gender stereotypes are. Yet, because self-reported gender stereotypes may differ from implicit attitudes towards each gender, we reanalysed data collected across 44 cultures, and (a) confirmed that societal gender egalitarianism reduces the women-are-wonderful effect when it is measured more implicitly (i.e. rating the personality of men and women presented in images) and (b) documented that the social perception of men benefits more from gender egalitarianism than that of women.



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Funding Information

Research was supported by the Polish National Science Centre grant 2011/03/N/HS6/05112 (K.K.), National Natural Science Foundation of China grant 31200788 (C.X) and National Research, Development and Innovation Office grant no. OTKA-K-111 789 grant (M.F.). {2011/03/N/HS6/05112 (K.K.), 31200788 (C.X), OTKA-K-111 789 grant (M.F.)}

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Copyright © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science. Access to external full text or publisher's version may require subscription.

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Recommended Citation

Krys, K., Capaldi, C. A., Van Tilburg, W., Lipp, O. V., Bond, M. H., Vauclair, C.-M., … Ahmed, R. A. (2017). Catching up with wonderful women: The women-are-wonderful effect is smaller in more gender egalitarian societies. International Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12420