Xie Lingyun (385–433) is generally recognized as the progenitor and paradigm of poetry on “mountains and waters” (shanshui 山水). Where Tao Qian had written predominantly of the only-partly wild landscapes near his cottage, Xie made his theme the dramatic wildernesses of the southlands. Much of his poetry concerns the scenery of his massive estate, which he staffed with a small army of servants and retainers. His most powerful verse, however, was written in the rugged, unforgiving landscapes he passed through on journeys into exile.
Bender, L. R., & Cai, Z. (2022, Jul 12). Pentasyllabic Shi Poetry: Landscape poetry: Xie Lingyun’s “Mountains and Waters” . In How to read Chinese poetry podcast. Hong Kong: Lingnan University. Retrieved from https://commons.ln.edu.hk/poetry_podcast/24/