In this essay, I intend to find out what kind of music was used by protesters during the Tiananmen Square protests, and the symbiotic relationship of popular music and the state. I define popular music as the most widespread music that includes both revolutionary mass songs that are imposed from top to bottom to maintain hegemony, and unoﬃcial songs like Gangtai songs (songs popular in Hong Kong and Taiwan) and rock songs that are under the state control yet express not necessarily the state’s interests.
Wang, M. (2021). From the highest court to the furthest wasteland: Following the footprints of music in Tiananmen Square protests. Cultural Studies@Lingnan, 69. Retrieved from https://commons.ln.edu.hk/mcsln/vol69/iss1/3/