其他篇名 Alternative Title
Journeys to the West : travelogues and discursive power in the making of the Mongol Empire
南宋末年，偏安一隅的宋室曾多次向鄰國派遣使節，讓他們考察外國的軍政制度與文化風俗，藉此訂定邊政，防範外族侵擾。這些使者所撰述的遊記大都有實際的功能。相對來説，全真教道士李志常 (1193—1256) 所編撰的《長春真人西遊記》更能展現當時文化與政治之間糾纏不清的關係。李志常的這部遊記記錄了自己追隨老師丘處機 (1148—1227) 西行到中亞訪問成吉思汗 (1162—1227) 的旅程。他一方面要申明全真教在文化上的權威，另一方面卻又必須考慮當時蒙古已統領華北地區，擁有統治的實際權力。本文即嘗試先闡明《長春真人西遊記》的敘事策略，説明李志常如何在承認蒙古的統治之餘，展示自己在文化上比蒙古人更優越。本文接着從全真教的遊記轉到耶律楚材 (1190—1244) 所撰的《西遊錄》。耶律楚材扈從成吉思汗出兵西域，其遊記不但有意識地回應了全真教的記錄，同時又挪用了全真教的修辭，既申明了蒙元帝國攻佔中亞的理據，同時也模糊了蒙古人與漢人的分野。透過比對兩部遊記的異同，追乘其修辭的影響，本文嘗試闡明這些作品早已爲蒙元的正統論奠下基礎。
Before the Mongol conquest in 1279, numerous envoys were sent from the Southern Song court to its neighboring states. Their purpose was to evaluate and tame foreign territories and alien peoples and thereby reduce their threat to Song culture, and the travelogues resulting from these journeys were often “utilitarian” in style. The Record of the Perfected Master Changchun’s Journey to the West (Changchun zhenren xiyou ji), however, deserves special attention for its nuanced handling of a complex cultural-political power dynamics. Its compiler, Li Zhichang, was a leader in the Quanzhen sect, and his travelogue documents the journey of his master, Qiu Chuji, at the invitation of Chinggis Khan. Li’s text illustrates the tension of competing political and cultural authorities: while the Mongols were becoming the source of political authority, the Taoists still owned the discursive power. The author argues that Li deliberately adopted a narrative strategy that conceded the Mongol claim to political legitimacy while simultaneously asserting Taoism’s cultural dominance over the Mongols. The article also juxtaposes Li’s work with the travel record by Yelu Chucai, a Khitan adviser to the Mongols who traveled with Chinggis Khan during his western military expeditions. Although Yelu’s travelogue is often read as a rebuttal to Li Zhichang’s work, a closer look reveals how Yelu appropriated Li’s strategy for his own agenda: to justify Mongols’ invasion of Central Asia while highlighting the cultural values shared between the Mongols and the Han Chinese. Both works employ rhetorical strategies that laid the foundation for political discourse affirming the Mongol-Yuan dynastic legitimacy.
丘處機, 耶律楚材, 遊記, 蒙元帝國, 正統論, Qiu Chuji, Yelu Chucai, travelogues, Mongol Empire, legitimacy
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參考書目格式 Recommended Citation
許明德 (2020)。西遊的文化政治：從兩部遊記看蒙元正統論的生成。《嶺南學報》，第十三輯，頁99-125。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol13/iss1/5