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其他篇名 Alternative Title

The epistolary self and psychological warfare : Tuoba Tao’s letters and his southern audience

摘要 Abstract

公元五世紀上半葉,北魏 (386—534) 王朝逐漸统一中國北部,成爲與南朝劉宋 (420—479) 政權相對峙的勁敵。隨著軍事對抗和外交互動的逐漸頻繁,雙方也實施和利用多種文化與政治策略以在權力與正統的爭奪中獲勝。本文討論北魏君主拓跋燾 (408—452,423—452在位) 在南北朝軍事對峙的關鍵時刻發送給南朝的國書以及書信中帝王的自我呈現。學界對北朝文學的某種共識認爲北人文章在語言風格上的簡單,反映了北方質樸的民風與民族特色。筆者則將拓跋燾書信的討論置於宫廷創作、外交策略以及歷史敘述的語境中,認爲拓跋燾書信語言的“簡單”是北朝宫廷特意營造與選擇的修辭術。該修辭策略塑造了與南方截然相反的帝王形象,同時影響預期讀者對當時軍事與政治形勢的判斷。之後,史學家沈約 (441—513) 將拓跋燾的書信嵌於《宋書》的歷史敘事中。語境的變化改變文本的意義,爲後來讀者提供了新的闡釋框架。

The Northern Wei dynasty (386 - 534) unified north China in the fifth century CE and stood as a powerful rival to the Liu Song dynasty (42 - 479) in the south. As military campaigns and diplomatic exchange between the two dynasties became more frequent, both courts strove to deploy a variety of strategies to prevail in the competitions of political authority and legitimacy. This article examines the northern emperor Tuoba Tao’s (408 - 452,r. 423 - 452 ) self-represen-tation in his letters delivered to the southern audience at the height of the two states’ military struggle. Scholars have ascribed the letters ’ linguistic simplicity to certain unadorned northern style or ethnic characteristics. The author situates the discussion of Tuoba Tao’s letters in the context of courtly composition, diplomatic maneuvers, and historiographical intervention and argues that the simple diction was a deliberate rhetorical choice used by the northern court to construct a different imperial image and to exert psychological influence on the intended readers. Moreover, Shen Yue’s (441 - 513) embedding of the letters in a historical narrative as written documents reshapes the reception of the letters and imposes new interpretive frameworks for later readers.

關鍵詞 Keywords

自我呈現, 書信, 語言的政治, 皇權, 歷史書寫, self-representation, letter, politics of language, kingship, historiography

版權聲明 Copyright Statement

香港嶺南大學中文系(編),上海古籍出版社(出版)

語言 Language

Chinese (Traditional)

參考書目格式 Recommended Citation

寇陸 (2020)。書信中的君王形象與心理戰 : 拓跋燾 (408—452) 的國書和他的南方讀者。《嶺南學報》,第十三輯,頁51-71。檢自 https://commons.ln.edu.hk/ljcs_new/vol13/iss1/3

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