Title

Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale across 26 countries

Authors

Seulki JANG, University of South Florida
Eun Sook KIM, University of South Florida
Chunhua CAO, University of South Florida
Tammy D. ALLEN, University of South FloridaFollow
Cary L. COOPER, Lancaster University
Laurent M. LAPIERRE, University of Ottawa
Michael P. O’DRISCOLL, University of Waikato
Juan I. SANCHEZ, Florida International University
Paul E. SPECTOR, University of South Florida
Steven A. Y. POELMANS, EADA Business School
Nureya ABARCA, Pontificia Universidad Católica de ChileFollow
Matilda ALEXANDROVA, University of National and World EconomyFollow
Alexandros-Stamatios ANTONIOU, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensFollow
Barbara BEHAM, Berlin School of Economics and LawFollow
Paula BROUGH, Griffith UniversityFollow
Ilker CARIKCI, Suleyman Demirel UniversityFollow
Pablo FERREIRO, Universidad de Piura
Guillermo FRAILE, Austral University
Sabine GEURTS, Radboud University
Ulla KINNUNEN, University of Tampere
Chang-qin LU, Peking University
Luo LU, National Taiwan University
Ivonne F MORENO-VELÁZQUEZ, University of Puerto Rico
Milan PAGON, Independent University
Horea PITARIU, Babes-Bolyai University
Volodymyr SALAMATOV, National Academy of Public Administration
Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong KongFollow
Satoru SHIMA, Kyoto Bunkyo University
Marion K. SCHULMEYER, 5Private University of Santa Cruz of the Sierra
Kati TILLEMANN, Estonian Business School
Maria WIDERSZAL-BAZYL, Central Institute for Labor Protection
Jong-Min WOO, Inje University

Document Type

Journal article

Source Publication

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Publication Date

5-2017

Volume

48

Issue

4

First Page

560

Last Page

576

Publisher

Sage Publications, Inc.

Keywords

life satisfaction, satisfaction with life scale (SWLS), measurement invaraince, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), alignment optimization method, multilevel multiple indicators multiple causes (ML-MIMIC), measurement/statistics, cross-cultural differences

Abstract

The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings. Therefore, we examined the measurement invariance of SWLS with samples collected from 26 countries. To test measurement invariance, we utilized three measurement invariance techniques: (a) multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA), (b) multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA), and (c) alignment optimization methods. The three methods demonstrated that configural and metric invariances of life satisfaction held across 26 countries, whereas scalar invariance did not. With partial invariance testing, we identified that the intercepts of Items 2, 4, and 5 were noninvariant. Based on two invariant intercepts, factor means of countries were compared. Chile showed the highest factor mean; Spain and Bulgaria showed the lowest. The findings enhance our understanding of life satisfaction across countries, and they provide researchers and practitioners with practical guidance on how to conduct measurement invariance testing across countries.

DOI

10.1177/0022022117697844

Print ISSN

00220221

E-ISSN

15525422

Publisher Statement

Copyright © The Author(s) 2017. Access to external full text or publisher's version may require subscription.

Full-text Version

Publisher’s Version

Language

English

Recommended Citation

Jang, S., Kim, E. S., Cao, C., Allen, T. D., Cooper, C. L., Lapierre, L. M., … Woo, J.-M. (2017). Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale across 26 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 560-576. doi: 10.1177/0022022117697844

Share

COinS