Understanding of Xia Lun's viewpoint about "Chinese Opera Moralization" and writing and comments of loyalty legend "Flawless Jade" from "interpretation"
戲曲教化, 有知見讀者, 無瑕璧, 恐懼與欣羨, Opera moralization, Perceptional reader, Flawless Jade, Fear and admiration
Xia Lun (1680-1753) has the masterpieces including "Five Types of Operas of Xing Zhai" and "Six Types of New Operas", which was made by adopting the new work "Song of Calyx" later. At the age of 60, Xia Lun wrote the legend, flaunting "moralization" of Chinese operas. His works are all telling about loyalty, filial piety, chastity and righteousness. He said that "Flawless Jade" is a work telling about loyalty, "Xing Hua Village" is a work telling about filial piety, and "Rui Yun Diagram" and "Ladder to Moon Palace" are works telling about chastity and righteousness. "Nan Yang Yue", namely "Bu Hen" is a work for showing justice. Except that ＂Nan Yang Yue＂ changed the manuscript for 3 times, other works were finished in 4 years. 6 works of Xia Lun had received comments of Xu Mengyuan. This paper attempts to explore the "moralization of Chinese operas" to reproduce the reason of Qing Dynasty from the era environment and the opera development. The way is to discuss by put Xia Lun in a more spacious interpretation system, including historical materials and rumors that Xia Lun might read and interpret, and his observations for the sociocultural environment and the atmosphere of writing moralization operas, as well as the features reflected by him and interpretations of contemporary people to his works. In terms of the whole meaning of the interpretation system, the commenter, Xu Mengyuan, plays a most important role. In this paper, we use "Flawless Jade" to collectively discuss the features written by Xia Lun and commented by Xu Mengyuan. We further use the subject spirit of the works and the relationships of "Chinese Tragedy" to discuss the interpretations of "writing" and "comment" to the tragic experience of characters. We wish that a new viewpoint of understanding "Chinese Tragedy" will be found through the interaction by observing history and era interpreted by Xia Lun, and dramas interpreted by the "commenter".