Title

《儀禮 ‧ 士冠禮》冠者取脯適東壁見母解

Document Type

Journal article

Source Publication

中國文化研究所學報 = Journal of Chinese Studies

Publication Date

7-2014

Volume

59

First Page

1

Last Page

28

Keywords

《儀禮》, 冠禮, 適東壁, 闈門

Abstract

根據《儀禮 ‧ 士冠禮》的敘述,冠者見母的儀節是緊接第三次加冠完畢和賓禮冠者之 後舉行的,經文云:「冠者奠觶于薦東,降筵,北面坐,取脯,降自西階,適東壁, 北面見于母。母拜,受。子拜,送。母又拜。」然後賓才為冠者取字。對這個儀節, 古今注家討論的焦點大多放在「適東壁」見母上。各家解說「適東壁」,紛然殽亂,莫 衷一是。現當代學者幾乎一致沿用由鄭玄(127–200)創立的舊說,擾攘了數百年的爭 論似乎就此平息下來。平心而論,鄭說不無可商,若未經嚴格的辯證,不宜視作定論。古今注家之說,大抵可歸納為二:一說以鄭玄《儀禮注》為宗,就其共通點 而言,可概括為「出闈門見母說」,謂母不在廟而在闈門之外,故冠者需出闈門見 之,自唐迄清,禮家如唐賈公彥、朱熹(1130–1200)、李如圭(1133年進士)、魏 了翁(1178–1237)、姜兆錫(1666–1745)、方苞(1668–1749)、褚寅亮(1715–1790)、孔 廣森(1752–1786)、王聘珍、張惠言(1761–1802)、焦循(1763–1820)、洪頤煊(1765– 1837)、江筠、胡培翬(1782–1849)、朱駿聲(1788–1858)、黃以周(1828–1899)、張 錫恭(1858–1924)、曹元弼(1867–1953)等皆主之,但持此說者看法卻不盡一致; 另一說可概括為「適廟東壁見母說」,有感鄭說不可從,故另立新解,由元人敖繼公 首開其端,郝敬(1558–1639)、萬斯大(1633–1683)、姚際恆(1647–約1715)、吳廷 華(1682–1755)、王士讓(1687–1741)、沈彤(1688–1752)、蔡德晉、孔廣林、劉沅 (1768–1855)、林昌彝(1803–1876)、于鬯(1854–1910)、吳之英(1857–1918)等皆主 之。兩說的最大分歧在於冠者在廟中見母抑或出闈門見母於廟外。至於「取脯」之 義,古今注家多不甚措意,論者蓋寡。實則「取脯」與「適東壁」見母一意相連,其中 蘊含的制禮之意不可忽略。本文所論,旨在梳理目前搜集所得的資料,甄別各說之 異同,評定其得失利弊,並結合《儀禮》本文及相關禮制,解讀「適東壁」見母之義, 從而闡發冠者取脯見母的底蘊,以就正於大雅方家。

As narrated in the Yili or Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial, when a man’s capping rite has taken place, during the coming-of-age ceremony, the graduate takes the dried flesh, descends the west steps, and goes to the eastern outer wall of the ancestral temple to present himself before his mother, where they bow to one another. The key phrase shi dongbi 適東壁 (go to the east wall) in the passage has since ancient times attracted numerous and controversial discussions focusing on where the mother stands. The present article conducts a critical examination of the major existing explanations and also attempts to develop a plausible account of the phrase and related ceremonies. It also reveals the ideas underlying the ceremonies, particularly the graduate’s visiting his mother and handing the present of meat to her, and the mother’s bowing in reply to him. It concludes that the mother witnesses the onset of maturity of her son by standing close to the eastern outer wall instead of the side gate outside the temple. Also, the mother regards her son as a grown man by bowing to him twice.

Print ISSN

10164464

Publisher Statement

Copyright © 香港中文大學 The Chinese University of Hong Kong

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Full-text Version

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Recommended Citation

許子濱 (2014)。《儀禮 ‧ 士冠禮》冠者取脯適東壁見母解。《中國文化研究所學報 = Journal of Chinese Studies》,59,1-28。