In its non-specialist usage, the word “modern” simply means and in that sense people of all historical periods can justifiably describe themselves with the same adjective. In socio-historical studies, however, the concept of modernity has been specifically linked with the emergence of industrial societies which first came into being in northwestern Europe some two centuries ago. There are many things that have been said to characterize a modern society. Put in the most general sociological terms, such a society possesses a multiplicity of institutions which have been developed for distinctive missions and special tasks; in particular, a modern society is guided in its actions by the findings which have been obtained through science.
Ding, E. (2009). Modernity vs Pre-modernity in a Global Literary Context. Interlitteraria, 14(1), 29-40, derived from www.ceeol.com.